Sponsored Ad
Results 1 to 15 of 15

Thread: Where did the slaves come from? Look here

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Oct 2003
    Location
    In a 4 cornered room staring at candles
    Posts
    20,848

    Default Where did the slaves come from? Look here

    The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade A brief review of the triangular trade with particular reference to recent statistics. Related Resources • Slavery and the Slave Trade
    • Slavery Images
    • The Role of Islam in African Slavery
    • Reparations for Slavery?

    Book Reviews • Transformations in Slavery


    For two hundred years, 1440-1640, Portugal had a monopoly on the export of slaves from Africa. It is notable that they were also the last European country to abolish the institution - although, like France, it still continued to work former slaves as contract labourers, which they called libertos or engagιs ΰ temps. It is estimated that during the 4 1/2 centuries of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, Portugal was responsible for transporting over 4.5 million Africans (roughly 40% of the total). During the eighteenth century however, when the slave trade accounted for the transport of a staggering 6 million Africans, Britain was the worst transgressor - responsible for almost 2.5 million. (A fact often forgotten by those who regularly cite Britain's prime role in the abolition of the slave trade.)
    The triangular trade
    Expanding European empires in the New World lacked one major resource -- a work force. In most cases the indigenous peoples had proved unreliable (most of them were dying from diseases brought over from Europe), and Europeans were unsuited to the climate and suffered under tropical diseases. Africans, on the other hand, were excellent workers: they often had experience of agriculture and keeping cattle, they were used to a tropical climate, resistant to tropical diseases, and they could be "worked very hard" on plantations or in mines.


    Africans had been traded as slaves for centuries -- reaching Europe via the Islamic-run, trans-Saharan, trade routes. Slaves obtained from the Muslim dominated North African coast however proved to be too well educated to be trusted and had a tendency to rebellion.
    Between 1450 and the end of the nineteenth century, slaves were obtained from along the west coast of Africa with the full and active co-operation of African kings and merchants. (There were occasional military campaigns organised by Europeans to capture slaves, especially by the Portuguese in what is now Angola, but this accounts for only a small percentage of the total.) In return, the African kings and merchants received various trade goods including beads, cowrie shells (used as money), textiles, brandy, horses, and perhaps most importantly, guns. The guns were used to help expand empires and obtain more slaves, until they were finally used against the European colonisers. The export of trade goods from Europe to Africa forms the first side of the triangular trade.
    Trans-Atlantic exports by region
    1650-1900
    RegionNumber of slaves
    accounted for
    %Senegambia479,9004.7Upper Guinea411,2004.0Windward Coast183,2001.8Gold Coast1,035,60010.1Blight of Benin2,016,200
    19.7Blight of Biafra1,463,700
    14.3West Central4,179,50040.8South East470,9004.6Total10,240,200100.0Data derived from tables 1.1, 3.2, 3.4, 4.1 and 7.4
    as presented in:

    Transformations in Slavery
    by Paul E. Lovejoy
    Cambridge University Press, 2000,
    ISBN 0-521-78430-1
    The transport of slaves from Africa to the Americas forms the middle passage of the triangular trade. Several distinct regions can be identified along the west African coast, these are distinguished by the particular European countries who visited the slave ports, the peoples who were enslaved, and the dominant African society(s) who provided the slaves.
    So, for example, Senegambia includes the Wolof, Mandinka, Sereer and Fula; Upper Gambia has the Temne, Mende, and Kissi; the Wndward Coast has the Vai, De, Bassa, and Grebo. (A forthcoming article will look in more detail at the people and kingdoms involved in the slave trade.)
    Slaves were introduced to new diseases and suffered from malnutrition long before they reached the new world. It is suggested that the majority of deaths on the voyage across the Atlantic - the middle passage - occurred during the first couple of weeks and were a result of malnutrition and disease encountered during the forced marches and subsequent interment at slave camps on the coast.
    Conditions on the slave ships were terrible, but the estimated death rate of around 13% is lower than the mortality rate for seamen, officers and passengers on the same voyages. (Again, a forthcoming article will discuss 'mortality rates of the trans-Atlantic slave trade'.)
    Trans-Atlantic imports by region
    1450-1900
    RegionNumber of slaves
    accounted for
    %Brazil4,000,00035.4Spanish Empire2,500,00022.1British West Indies2,000,00017.7French West Indies1,600,0014.1British North America and United States500,000
    4.4Dutch West Indies500,0004.4Danish West Indies28,0000.2Europe (and Islands)200,0001.8Total11,328,000100.0Data derived from table II as presented in:
    The Slave Trade
    by Hugh Thomas
    Simon and Schuster, 1997,
    ISBN 0-68481063-8
    As a result of the slave trade, five times as many Africans arrived in the Americas than Europeans. Slaves were needed on plantations and for mines and the majority was shipped to Brazil, the Caribbean, and the Spanish Empire. Less than 5% travelled to the Northern American States formally held by the British.
    The third, and final, leg of the triangular trade involved the return to Europe with the produce from the slave-labour plantations: cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses and rum.

    The statistics presented in this article are derived from various tables published in the following books:

    Transformations in Slavery by Paul E. Lovejoy, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-78430-1, 367 pages.

    The Slave Trade by Hugh Thomas, Simon and Schuster, 1997, ISBN 0-68481063-8, 908 pages.


    The time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time.


  2. #2
    Join Date
    Feb 2004
    Location
    MD/DC
    Posts
    25,179

    Default

    did you show that dimwit this...I'm sure she wet her pants with joy.....afro-centric elitists...gotta love em

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Oct 2003
    Location
    In a 4 cornered room staring at candles
    Posts
    20,848

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by search4ras
    did you show that dimwit this...I'm sure she wet her pants with joy.....afro-centric elitists...gotta love em
    ****rubs Search's back****

    there there.....


    The time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time.


  4. #4
    Join Date
    Oct 2003
    Location
    In a 4 cornered room staring at candles
    Posts
    20,848

    Default

    but to put things in context...
    African tribes that are located where they are living today are not exactly the same original people in that region, nor are they the people who existed there during the slave trade. Most of the people who were stolen during the slave trade were on their way into the west and central regions from the north of Africa. Nomadic, traveling, somewhat refugees and trying to escape from islamic slavery. Most ethnic groups have their history pointing to the north of Africa as their origin. Certain groups are where they are because of invasions from caucasians and/or Arabs causing nations of peopel to migrate south en-masse, only to be cornered once again and enslaved and colonized.


    The time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time.


  5. #5
    Join Date
    Feb 2004
    Location
    MD/DC
    Posts
    25,179

    Default

    yes, several people tried to explain this geographic phenom which should have negated her whole East Africa is not our culture so it's stupid to "co-opt" spiel...but let the blind remain blind.

  6. #6
    Join Date
    Nov 2001
    Location
    England
    Posts
    157

    Default

    Not sure how to take this and I may be misreading what you are saying.
    The articles are not saying anything new but are presenting it in a skewed manner.

    We know a lot of African empires had slaves. The African concept of the slave was different from the European. Africans turned captured prisoners into slaves, Slaves in many African societies had rights, many were paid (so might not be termed slaves today). Ibn Battuta the C14 traveller comments on the Mansa Musa, leader of the Mali Empire, having armed slaves in his retinue.

    The Slavery of European imperialism was chattel slavery where the issue wasn't so much that people were slaves but that slaves were property with no rights. Worse than this is what Europeans did to justify this such as dehumanising Africans, justifying this with claims such as we had no central nervous system and therefore could not feel pain, we were less than apes, we copulated with apes, we were evil demons etc. etc. These views and similar were propagated by the most intelligent of European society such as Blumenbach, Hulme, Burton, Bacon, Neitche and supported by the rest. We are still living that legacy.

    Many African nations tried to resist slavery but were forced into contributing such as Dahomey, modern day Benin, who were threatened with annihilation if they did not help find slaves. Many African leaders actively fought slavery such as Ngola Ann Nzinga of the Congo, especially after they realised what happened to these people after they had been sold to the Europeans.

    We must also remember that whilst many African peoples are indeed the same people as were there during slavery. Much of the migration you talked of happened long before the C15. At that time there was no African or black political consciousness. Other Africans were just neighbouring peoples or enemies. Africans fought and killed each other just as Europeans did. The difference is no African nation wanted to rule the world. Strength and stability was enough as with the Swahili empires.

    It is well know that N. America only accounted for a small proportion of Africans taken in slavery. This is why I always wonder why so many people look to there for examples of our culture. Brazil alone accounted for around 50% and even today the average Caribbean island is around 70-90% African in its population.

  7. #7
    Join Date
    Feb 2004
    Location
    MD/DC
    Posts
    25,179

    Default

    the comments were a spin from another individual's loose phrasing that none of our ancestors are from East Africa therefore it is stupid for African Americans to learn the ways of a culture not their own...the arguments to refute the claim were based on geographical inconsistencies, tribal migration, the East African slave trade, and then the European slave trade.

  8. #8
    Join Date
    Oct 2003
    Location
    In a 4 cornered room staring at candles
    Posts
    20,848

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Vusi

    We must also remember that whilst many African peoples are indeed the same people as were there during slavery. Much of the migration you talked of happened long before the C15. At that time there was no African or black political consciousness. Other Africans were just neighbouring peoples or enemies. Africans fought and killed each other just as Europeans did. The difference is no African nation wanted to rule the world. Strength and stability was enough as with the Swahili empires.
    I guess I'm relating it to the point above. There was peroidic migration, even up to this day. Some ethnic groups were larger than others or absorbed other groups into their own. It's hard to get the full details of or appreciate with the appropreciate the context of events that happened in history.


    The time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time.


  9. #9
    Join Date
    Oct 2001
    Location
    tallahassee, florida
    Age
    37
    Posts
    4,617

    Default

    What I want to know is if anyone can get anymore specific of the slaves on caribbean islands such as the St.Vincent people came from such and such tribe. The Guyanese came mostly from such and such tribe. Also, so it is fact that the slaves were first taken to the caribbean and South America before they came to America. I thought alot of the American slaves went from West Africa to places like South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland.. Enlighten me.

  10. #10
    Join Date
    Nov 2001
    Location
    England
    Posts
    157

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Puss Man
    What I want to know is if anyone can get anymore specific of the slaves on caribbean islands such as the St.Vincent people came from such and such tribe. The Guyanese came mostly from such and such tribe. Also, so it is fact that the slaves were first taken to the caribbean and South America before they came to America. I thought alot of the American slaves went from West Africa to places like South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland.. Enlighten me.
    As far as St. Vincent is concerned there were no plantations there for a long time because it was a Carib stronghold and whilst both the French and the British fought to take it for themselves, neither could.

    Africans came to the island when a Dutch slave ship with Ibo people from Nigeria capsized off the coast. The Caribs helped the Africans but not the crew.
    The mix of Ibo and Carib gave rise to what were later called Black Caribs.
    The British eventually took the island when they negotiated a treaty with the Caribs against the French. Of course, as soon as they were on the Island the British turned against the Caribs shipping them off to Central America.

    Europeans deliberately mixed Africans when they brought them to the Americas in the belief that this would make it difficult to revolt. However, each European country had its favourite area for getting Africans from so these would often dominate their territories in the Americas.

    European's belief that we could not get over our cultural differences and unite against them was founded on their own xenophobic and belligerent cultural attitudes.
    Africans managed to work together quite well, this included forming Nations or Candombles which were large organisations designed to retain our African culture and protect individual Africans.

    However there were certain cultural groups that dominated either because they were in the majority or they were a particularly powerful group.
    In Cuba, Trinidad and Brazil it was the Yoruba (Nigeria); in Jamaica it was the Asante (Ghana); in Haiti the Fon (Dahomey or Benin as it is now called). This is why we see examples of their culture dominating the culture of those islands, even today. Shango and the Orisha are from Nigeria; Bra Anansi, Accompong, Ackee, Jonkunnu and possibly Obeah are from Ghana and Voodoo (Voudum) is from Benin.

    These groups may have dominated but because each island had a different mix the Shango or Orisha that is known in Cuba is not exactly the same as is known in Trinidad or Brazil.

    As for North America, only a small percentage of Africans taken in slavery actually ended up there, I think around 13%. This is compared to Brazil which accounted for almost 50%.
    Because the plantations in N. America were relatively small, they didn't have the same turnover of slaves so could afford to purchase those who had first been to special plantations in the Caribbean where they were broken-in. This is not to say that some were not shipped directly.
    In the Caribbean and S. America they needed so many Africans that they regularly had to ship them direct.

  11. #11
    Join Date
    Apr 2005
    Posts
    27,812

    Default

    enslaved africans were never slaves!!!!!!
    i am blessed

  12. #12
    Join Date
    Nov 2001
    Location
    England
    Posts
    157

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by scwallydem
    enslaved africans were never slaves!!!!!!
    I would like to agree but some of us were and still are:

    NAACP - Kicking Garvey out of America and forcing Carter G Woodson to resign his membership in order to develop Black History Month.
    Virtually every N. American music artist since the C20.
    Political leaders like Mobutu of Zaire and Amin of Uganda.
    Mary Secole running behind the British Army, leaving dying Africans on Jamaica
    Caribbean islands volunteering to die for Britain, France etc. during the war.
    Every black Republican.

  13. #13
    ---ZyE--- is offline Member needs to UPDATE email info or CONFIRM email address
    Join Date
    Sep 2001
    Location
    Cthug ban me thru him vex cah me kill him
    Age
    39
    Posts
    2,208

    Gnasher

    Quote Originally Posted by Vusi
    I would like to agree but some of us were and still are (slaves):
    Every black Republican.
    lol

  14. #14
    Join Date
    Apr 2005
    Posts
    27,812

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Vusi
    I would like to agree but some of us were and still are:

    NAACP - Kicking Garvey out of America and forcing Carter G Woodson to resign his membership in order to develop Black History Month.
    Virtually every N. American music artist since the C20.
    Political leaders like Mobutu of Zaire and Amin of Uganda.
    Mary Secole running behind the British Army, leaving dying Africans on Jamaica
    Caribbean islands volunteering to die for Britain, France etc. during the war.
    Every black Republican.
    very true general,very true
    i am blessed

  15. #15
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Location
    Work
    Posts
    287

    Default

    Interesting

Similar Threads

  1. Taking the kids to work??? Buffie a gwan bad...
    By Sick A Dat in forum The PASSA PASSA Forum
    Replies: 4
    Last Post: 11-08-2005, 10:11 AM
  2. HELP
    By Peaches and Cream in forum Help Desk Support
    Replies: 6
    Last Post: 07-07-2005, 01:18 PM
  3. IT GONE TOO FAR NOW STAR
    By scwallydem in forum The PASSA PASSA Forum
    Replies: 12
    Last Post: 05-19-2005, 04:25 PM
  4. MEK MI TELL UNU FIRST LA RUMBLE 2K5 results
    By skim in forum MAIN AREA: The V.I.P. DANCEHALL Forum
    Replies: 16
    Last Post: 05-12-2005, 12:54 PM
  5. She get whole heap a love an joy from di....
    By Ackee in forum MAIN AREA: The V.I.P. DANCEHALL Forum
    Replies: 18
    Last Post: 01-27-2005, 09:14 AM

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •